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Adapin Antidepressant : Doxepin

Doxepin

Brand Name: Doxepin

DOXEPIN (Sinequan®) belongs to a group of medicines called tricyclic antidepressants. Doxepin can lift your spirits and relieve your depression. Generic doxepin capsules are available.Doxepin is in a class of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants. Doxepin affects chemicals in the brain that may become unbalanced and cause depression. Doxepin hydrochloride is one of a class of psychotherapeutic agents known as dibenzoxepin tricyclic compounds.

Uses of Adapin

  • Doxepin ( Adapin, Sinequan, Zonalon ) is an antidepressants, used in the treatment of many types of depression: refractory depression, major depression, mixed depression anxiety,neurotic depression, spontaneous endogenous depression.
  • Doxepin ( Adapin, Sinequan, Zonalon ) can also be used for the treatment of anxiety, chronic skin disorders, itching,panic disorders, peptic ulcer disease, postprandial hypoglycemia, posttraumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ), sleep disorders, or to stop the cravings of smoking, swelling, and to decrease nightly urination.
  • Doxepin ( Adapin, Sinequan, Zonalon ) has been used to combat chronic pain in, arthritis, diabetic disease, herpes lesions, migraines, pain in cancer patients, tension headaches, or tic douloureux.

How to Take Adapin

  • Take doxepin exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand these directions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you.
  • Take each dose with a full glass (8 oz) of water.
  • Doxepin may be taken several times a day or in one daily dose (usually at bedtime). Follow your doctor’s instructions.
  • It may be several weeks before you start to feel better, but do not stop taking doxepin without first talking to your doctor.

What are the Side Effects of Adapin Medication

This medicine can cause many side effects. The most common are:

  • dizziness
  • headache
  • dry mouth
  • constipation
  • nausea
  • nervousness
  • weight gain.

Warnings and precautions before taking Adapin Medication

  • Tricyclic antidepressants may also give rise to paralytic ileus, particularly in the elderly and in hospitalized patients. Therefore, appropriate measures should be taken if constipation occurs.
  • When doxepin is given concomitantly with anticholinergic or sympathomimetic drugs, close supervision and careful adjustment of dosages are required.
  • Doxepin should be discontinued prior to elective surgery for as long as the clinical situation will allow.
  • Doxepin should be used with caution in patients with impaired liver function or with a history of hepatic damage or blood dyscrasias. Periodic blood counts and liver function tests should be performed when patients receive doxepin in large doses or over prolonged periods.
  • This medicine should NOT be used by those having take MAO inhibitors in the last two weeks, by those with narrow angle glaucoma, or by those with cardiac rhythm problems.
  • It should NOT be abruptly discontinued.
  • Elderly patients generally should avoid this medicine, if possible, due to the increased chance of dizziness and falls.
  • This medicine may cause dizziness or drowsiness. Alcoholic beverages can increase the side effects of this medicine and should be avoided.

What drugs may interact with Adapin Tablet

  • Possible drug interactions may occur with phenobarbital causing a decrease in the effect of the medications. Severe blood pressure problems and seizure can occur with taken with MAO inhibitors.
  • Talk with your physician or pharmacist if you are taking other medications.Talk with your physician or pharmacist if you are taking other medications.

What to do if you take Overdose of Adapin ?

Symptoms of an doxepin overdose include:

  • seizures
  • confusion
  • drowsiness
  • agitation
  • hallucinations and low blood pressure (dizziness, fatigue, fainting).

How to Store Adapin ?

Store doxepin at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of the reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication.

References

What You Need To Know About Wart Removal Through Electrocautery

Wart Removal Through Electrocautery

Among the numerous skin ailments that recur and prove to be pestering even while there is less risk of long term harm to health, warts get a special mention. They are the outcome of HPV infection and affect skin areas like legs and neck. The ugly bumps on skin caused by the virus can also be painful and causes uneasiness and mars appearance of the victims. Warts can be treated in many ways but not all methods are effective on treating all variants, as it is.

Why use Electrocautery?

If not treated in the right way, the risk of recurrence of warts remains high. For removing certain types of warts and especially genital warts the OTC medications may not be very useful. To help the victims get rid of such warts effectively, doctors recommend using electrocautery for wart.

In this process, warts are eliminated from skin surface by using heat from electricity. A needle is made hot by application of electricity and the wart is removed by its application on affected skin part. The same process can be used to eliminate other skin growths too. In the process, you do not face risk of getting electrocuted as such. Low voltage electric probe is used in the treatment.

Video

What else you need to know

In most cases, the warts are eliminated after application of Electrocautery. There can be a wound after it is applied but healing is fast in most cases. However, larger warts may require longer healing time. The wound usually does not need much medication application to heal.

While the efficacy of removing wart through this process is high, you must remember this is not a permanent solution for wart elimination. Even after removal of warts through Electrocautery- chances of recurrence later cannot be ruled out. This process is usually not used for application on facial skin.

Dissociative Amnesia

Dissociative Amnesia

The essential feature of dissociative amnesia is a sudden inability to recall important personal information that can’t be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. The patient typically can’t recall all events that occurred during a specific period, but other types of recall disturbance also are possible.

This disorder commonly occurs during war and natural disasters. Although it’s more common in adolescents and young women, it also is seen in young men after combat experience. The amnesic event typically ends abruptly, and recovery is complete, with rare recurrences.

Causes

Dissociative amnesia follows severe psychosocial stress, often involving a threat of physical injury or death. Amnesia also may occur after thinking about or engaging in unacceptable behavior such as an extramarital affair.

Symptoms

The most common symptom of dissociative amnesia is memory loss. Shortly after becoming amnesic, a person may seem confused. Many people with dissociative amnesia are somewhat depressed or very distressed by their amnesia.

Diagnosis

The doctor carefully reviews the person’s signs and symptoms, and performs a physical examination to exclude physical causes of amnesia. Tests, including electroencephalography and blood testing for toxins and drugs, are sometimes needed to exclude physical causes. A psychologic examination is also performed. Special psychologic tests often help the doctor better characterize and understand the person’s dissociative experiences to develop a treatment plan.

Treatment

Psychotherapy aims to help the patient recognize the traumatic event that triggered the amnesia and the anxiety it produced. A trusting therapeutic relationship is essential to achieving this goal. The therapist subsequently attempts to teach the patient reality based coping strategies.

Prevention

Strategies for the prevention of child abuse might lower the incidence of dissociative amnesia in the general population. There are no effective preventive strategies for dissociative amnesia caused by traumatic experiences in adult life in patients without a history of childhood abuse.

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References

Depersonalization Disorder

Depersonalization Disorder

Persistent or recurrent episodes of detachment characterize depersonalization disorder. During these episodes, self-awareness is temporarily altered or lost; the patient often perceives this alteration in consciousness as a barrier between himself and the outside world. The sense of depersonalization may be restricted to a single body part such as a limb, or it may encompass the whole self.

Although the patient seldom loses touch with reality completely, the episodes of depersonalization may cause him severe distress.

Depersonalization disorder usually has a sudden onset in adolescence or early in adult life. It follows a chronic course, with periodic exacerbations and remissions, and resolves gradually.

Causes

Depersonalization disorder typically stems from severe stress, including war experiences, accidents, and natural disasters.

Symptoms

The primary symptom of depersonalization disorder is a distorted perception of the body. The person might feel like he or she is a robot or in a dream. Some people might fear they are going crazy and might become depressed, anxious, or panicky. For some people, the symptoms are mild and last for just a short time. For others, however, symptoms can be chronic (ongoing) and last or recur for many years, leading to problems with daily functioning or even to disability.

Treatment

Psychotherapy aims to establish a trusting therapeutic relationship in which the patient can come to recognize the traumatic event and the anxiety it evoked. The therapist subsequently teaches the patient to use reality-based coping strategies rather than to detach himself from the situation. A person in treatment for a dissociative disorder might benefit from antidepressants or anti-anxiety medication.

Prevention

Some clinicians think that depersonalization disorder has an undetected onset in childhood, even though most patients first appear for treatment as adolescents or young adults. Preventive strategies could include the development of screening techniques for identifying children at risk, as well as further research into the effects of emotional abuse on children. It is also hopeful that further neurobiological research will lead to the development of medications or other treatment modalities for preventing, as well as treating, depersonalization.

References

What Celebrities have Used Phenq

The new hottest trend in weight loss is formulated from capsicum and it is called Phenq. Phenq makes bold claims with slogans like “slim while you sit” and “lose weight at your desk”. This weight loss supplement has snagged headlines across the nation claiming that you can lose weight simply from consuming red chili peppers without having to diet or exercise!

Personal trainers across the country are raving about the product. Even “A listers” like Brad Pitt, Angelina Jolie, Britney Spears, and Jennifer Lopez have been known to use and support this method of weight loss. We have all heard the stories about Beyonce Knowles engaging in a diet that consists of maple syrup and cayenne pepper. These stars are raving about the weight loss properties of the stuff with no bad side effects. Surely if it is good enough for the stars to use it, it must be effective.

PhenQ Promo

You can’t find Phenq at stores since it is only available to purchase from the manufacturer direct online. So don’t look for it at your local phenq uk stockists. It was developed in the UK but it is being sold now around the world. One Phenq bottle contains a 30-day supply. All you have to do is take one capsule per day with a glass of water. For the best results possible you should take Phenq 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. If you don’t want to exercise you can still reap the benefits. No dieting is necessary either.

Taking one capsule will burn 278 calories whether you are working out or not. You can also eat whatever you like. This is the same amount of calories burned during a 25-minute jog or walking briskly for 80 minutes. That is correct. You burn those same calories without lifting a finger other than to take your daily dose.

The primary ingredient in Phenq, capsicum, is responsible for these amazing figures. Capsicum is an extract that speeds up your metabolism. This increased metabolism burns more calories and fat stored in your body. It would not normally be possible for you to ingest the amount of capsicum needed to see these types of results. The reason is that it would irate the mouth and throat and might even result in gastric problems. However Phenq utilizes a special coating that protects your mouth, throat, and digestive system. The coating is formulated so that the capsule is digested in the intestine where the acids nullify the painful effects of capsicum. There are none of the negative side effects from ingesting the capsicum in this form that you would normally experience. In fact there are no known negative side effects that have been associated with the consumption of Phenq. This miracle coating is top secret and it is one of the things that set Phenq apart from the rest along with the fact that it is 100% natural. So give it a try. It is safe and fast acting. The stars sure believe in it.

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia Nervosa

The key feature of anorexia nervosa is self-imposed starvation resulting from a distorted body image and an intense and irrational fear of gaining weight, even when obviously emaciated. An anorexic patient is preoccupied with her body size, describes herself as “fat,” and commonly expresses dissatisfaction with a particular aspect of her physical appearance. Although the term anorexia suggests that the patient’s weight loss is associated with a loss of appetite, this is rare.

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa can occur simultaneously. In anorexia nervosa, the refusal to eat may be accompanied by compulsive exercising, self­induced vomiting, or abuse of laxatives or diuretics.

Anorexia occurs in 5% to 10% of the population; more than 90% of those affected are females. It occurs primarily in adolescents and young adults but also may affect older women and, occasionally, males.

Causes

The cause of anorexia nervosa is unknown. Researchers in neuroendocrinology are seeking a physiologic cause but have found nothing definite. Clearly, social attitudes that equate slimness with beauty play some role in provoking this disorder; family factors also are implicated. Most theorists believe that refusing to eat is a subconscious effort to exert personal control over life or to protect oneself from dealing with issues surrounding sexuality.

Signs and symptoms

One important sign that someone may be suffering from anorexia nervosa is grossly distorted body image, meaning that the person feels they are overweight and, in fact, appear thin. Other symptoms may include unnatural fear of weight gain, compulsive exercising, self-starvation, loss of energy, and, in girls who have started menstruating, amenorrhea, or absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles. Those with anorexia nervosa may begin to appear emaciated.

Over time, the disorder may cause serious health problems including sudden death, congestive heart failure, dental problems, growth retardation, stomach rupture, swelling of the salivary glands, anemia, abnormalities of the blood, loss of kidney function and osteoporosis.

Treatment

Appropriate treatment aims to promote weight gain or control the patient’s compulsive binge eating and purging and to correct malnutrition and the underlying psychological dysfunction. Hospitalization in a medical or psychiatric unit may be required to improve the patient’s precarious physical state. Hospitalization may be as brief as 2 weeks or may stretch from a few months to 2 years or longer.

A team approach to care – combining aggressive medical management, nutritional counseling, and individual. group, or family psychotherapy or behavior modification therapy – is the best approach. Treatment is difficult, and results may be discouraging. Many clinical centers are now developing inpatient and outpatient programs specifically for managing eating disorders.

Treatment may include behavior modification (privileges depend on weight gain); curtailed activity for physical reasons (such as arrhythmias); vitamin and mineral supplements; a reasonable diet, with or without liquid supplements; subclavian, peripheral, or enteral hyperalimentation (enteral and peripheral routes carry less risk of infection); and group, family, or individual psychotherapy.

Supportive care by health care providers, structured behavioral therapy, psychotherapy, and anti-depressant drug therapy are some of the methods that are used for treatment. Severe and life-threatening malnutrition may require intravenous feeding.

Prevention

Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of anorexia are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, enhance the child’s normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Encouraging healthy eating habits and realistic attitudes toward weight and diet may also be helpful.

References

  1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexia_nervosa
  2. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/anorexia/

Delusional Disorders

Delusional Disorders

According to the DSM-IV. delusional disorders are characterized by false beliefs with a plausible basis in reality. Formerly referred to as paranoid disorders, delusional disorders are known to involve erotomanic, grandiose, jealous, or somatic themes as well as persecutory delusions. Some patients experience several types of delusions; other patients experience unspecified delusions that have no dominant theme.

Delusional disorders commonly begin in middle or late adulthood, usually between ages 40 and 55, but they can occur at a younger age. These uncommon illnesses affect less than 1 % of the population; the incidence is about equal in men and women. Typically chronic, these disorders often interfere with social and marital relationships but seldom impair intellectual or occupational functioning significantly.

Causes

Delusional disorders of later life strongly suggest a hereditary predisposition. At least one study has linked the development of delusional disorders to inferiority feelings in the family. Some researchers suggest that delusional disorders are the product of specific early childhood experiences with an authoritarian family structure. Others hold that anyone with a sensitive personality is particularly vulnerable to developing a delusional disorder.

Certain medical conditions are known to exaggerate the risks of delusional disorders: head injury, chronic alcoholism, deafness, and aging. Predisposing factors linked to aging include isolation, lack of stimulating interpersonal relationships, physical illness, and diminished hearing and vision. In addition, severe stress (such as a move to a foreign country) may precipitate a delusional disorder.

Symptoms

The presence of non-bizarre delusions is the most obvious symptom of this disorder. Other symptoms that might appear include:

  • An irritable, angry, or low mood
  • Hallucinations (seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not really there) that are related to the delusion (For example, a person who believes he or she has an odor problem may smell a bad odor.)

Diagnosis

Patients with delusional symptoms should undergo a thorough physical examination and patient history to rule out possible organic causes (such as dementia). If a psychological cause is suspected, a mental health professional will typically conduct an interview with the patient and administer one of several clinical inventories, or tests, to evaluate mental status

Treatment

Effective treatment of delusional disorders, consisting of a combination of drug therapy and psychotherapy, must correct the behavior and mood disturbances that result from the patient’s mistaken belief system. Treatment also may include mobilizing a support system for the isolated, aged patient.

Drug treatment with antipsychotic agents is similar to that used in schizophrenic disorders. Antipsychotics appear to work by blocking postsynaptic dopamine receptors. These drugs reduce the incidence of psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, and relieve anxiety and agitation. Other psychiatric drugs, such as antidepressants and anxiolytics, may be prescribed to control associated symptoms.

High-potency antipsychotics include fluphenazine, haloperidol, thiothixene, and trifluoperazine. Loxapine succinate, molindone, and perphenazine are intermediate in potency, and chlorpromazine and thioridazine are low-potency agents. Haloperidol decanoate, fluphenazine decanoate, and fluphenazine enanthate are depot formulations that are implanted I.M. and release the drug gradually over a 30-day period, improving compliance.

Clozapine, which differs chemically from other antipsychotic drugs, may be prescribed for severely ill patients who fail to respond to standard neuroleptic treatment. This agent effectively controls a wider range of psychotic symptoms without the usual adverse effects.

However, clozapine can cause drowsiness, sedation, excessive salivation, tachycardia, dizziness, and seizures, as well as agranulocytosis, a potentially fatal blood disorder characterized by a low white blood cell count and pronounced neutropenia. Routine blood monitoring is essential to detect the estimated 1 % to 2% of all patients taking clozapine who develop agranulocytosis. If caught in the early stages, the disorder is reversible.

Prevention

Effective means of prevention have not been identified.

References

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4874764/
  2. https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/delusional-disorder

Conversion Disorder

Conversion Disorder

Previously called hysterical neurosis, conversion type, a conversion disorder allows a patient to resolve a psychological conflict through the loss of a specific physical function, for example, by paralysis, blindness, or the inability to swallow. Unlike factitious disorders or malingering, the patient’s loss of physical function is involuntary. However, laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures don’t disclose an organic cause.

Conversion disorder can occur in either sex at any age. An uncommon disorder, it usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood. The conversion symptom itself isn’t life-threatening and usually has a short duration.

Causes

The patient suddenly develops the conversion symptom soon after experiencing a traumatic conflict that he believes he can’t handle. Two theories explain why this occurs. According to the first, the patient achieves a “primary gap,” when the symptom keeps a psychological conflict out of conscious awareness. For example, a person may experience blindness after witnessing a violent crime.

The second theory suggests that the patient achieves secondary gain from the symptom by avoiding a traumatic activity. For example, a soldier may develop a “paralyzed” hand that prevents him from entering into combat.

Signs and symptoms

Common signs of a conversion disorder include:

  • Sudden onset of physical symptoms
  • Recent history of a stressful experience
  • Inappropriate lack of concern over the physical symptoms

The symptoms of conversion disorder involve the loss of one or more bodily functions. These may include blindness, paralysis or the inability to speak. The loss of physical function is involuntary and diagnostic testing does not show a physical cause for the dysfunction.

Treatment

Psychotherapy, family therapy, relaxation therapy, behavior therapy, or hypnosis may be used alone or in combination (two or more) to treat conversion disorder.

References

  1. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000954.htm
  2. https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/psychiatric-disorders/somatic-symptom-and-related-disorders/conversion-disorder

Autistic Disorder

Autistic Disorder

Autistic disorder is a severe, pervasive developmental disorder marked by unresponsiveness to social contact, gross deficits in intelligence and language development, ritualistic and compulsive behaviors, restricted capacity for developmentally appropriate activities and interests, and bizarre responses to the environment.

The disorder usually becomes apparent before the child reaches age 3, but in some children the actual onset is difficult to determine. Occasionally, autistic disorder isn’t recognized until the child enters school. when his abnormal social development becomes obvious.

Autistic disorder is rare, affecting 4 to 5 children per 10,000 births. It affects four to five times more males than females, usually the firstborn male. Although the degree of impairment varies, the prognosis is poor and most patients require a structured environment throughout life.

Causes

The causes of autistic disorder remain unclear but are thought to include psychological. physiologic, and sociologic factors. Previously, it was thought that most parents of autistic children were intelligent, educated people of high socioeconomic status; recent studies suggest that this may not be true.

The parents of an autistic child may appear distant and unaffectionate toward the child. However, because autistic children are clearly different from birth, and because they are unresponsive or respond with rigid, screaming resistance to touch and attention, parental remoteness may be merely a frustrated, helpless reaction to this disorder, not its cause.

Some theorists consider autistic disorder related to early under stimulation that causes the child to seek contact with the world through self-stimulating behaviors or consider it related to overwhelming over stimulation that leads to regression, muteness, and unresponsiveness to external stimuli. Controlled studies haven’t confirmed this etiology.

Recent studies have pointed to an association between neurobiological factors and autism. Defects in the central nervous system that may arise from prenatal complications (such as rubella or phenylketonuria), high maternal stress in the first trimester, and genetic factors appear to playa role in the development of autism.

Signs and symptoms

  • does not socially interact well with others, including parents
    • shows a lack of interest in, or rejection of physical contact. Parents describe autistic infants as “unaffectionate.” Autistic infants and children are not comforted by physical contact.
    • avoids making eye contact with others, including parents
    • fails to develop friends or interact with other children
  • does not communicate well with others
    • is delayed or does not develop language
    • once language is developed, does not use language to communicate with others
    • has echolalia (repeats words or phrases repeatedly, like an echo)
  • demonstrates repetitive behaviors
    • has repetitive motor movements (such as rocking and hand or finger flapping)
  • is preoccupied, usually with lights, moving objects, or parts of objects
  • does not like noise
  • has rituals
  • requires routines

Treatment

The difficult and prolonged treatment of autistic disorder must begin early, continue for years (through adolescence), and involve the child, parents, teachers, and therapists in coordinated efforts to encourage social adjustment and speech development and to reduce self-destructive behavior.

Behavioral techniques are used to decrease symptoms and increase the child’s ability to respond. Positive reinforcement, using food and other rewards, can enhance language and social skills. Providing pleasurable sensory and motor stimulation (jogging, playing with a ball) encourages appropriate behavior and helps eliminate inappropriate behavior. Pharmacologic intervention may be helpful. Haloperidol often
mitigates withdrawn and stereotypical behavior patterns, making the child more amenable to behavior modification therapies.

Treatment may take place in a psychiatric institution, in a specialized school, or in a day-care program, but the current trend is toward home treatment. Helping family members to develop strong one-on-one relationships with the autistic child commonly initiates responsive, imitative behavior. Because family members tend to feel inadequate and guilty, they may need counseling.

Prevention

Until the causes of infantile autism are known, prevention isn’t possible.

References

  1. https://www.chw.org/medical-care/child-development-center/developmental-disorders/pervasive-developmental-disorders-pdd/autistic-disorder
  2. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/autism-spectrum-disorders-asd/index.shtml
  3. https://medlineplus.gov/autismspectrumdisorder.html

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

ADHD

The patient with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has difficulty focusing his attention, engaging in quiet passive activities, or both. Some patients have an attention deficit without hyperactivity; they’re less likely to be diagnosed and receive treatment.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common reasons children are referred for mental health services.  It affects as many as one in every 20 children. This disorder occurs in roughly 3% to 5% of school­age children. Males are three times more likely to be affected than females. The presence of other psychiatric disorders also needs to be determined.

Causes

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is thought to be a physiologic brain disorder with a familial tendency. Some studies indicate that it may result from altered neurotransmitter levels in the brain.

Signs and symptoms

The kinds of symptoms professionals look for in diagnosing ADHD include

  • difficulty following instructions or completing tasks
  • difficulty ‘sticking to’ an activity
  • easily distracted and forgetful
  • Having trouble waiting his or her turn
  • Interrupting or intruding on others
  • difficulty playing quietly
  • always seeming to be “on the go”
  • blurts out answers without waiting for the question to finish
  • difficulty in waiting or taking turns

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD some of these problems would have been apparent before the age of six or seven years.

These behaviours must normally occur in more than one setting (for example at home as well as at school) for ADHD to be diagnosed.

Treatment

Education is the first step in effective treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The entire treatment team (which ideally includes parents, teachers, and therapists as well as the patient and the doctor) must fully understand the nature of this disorder as well as the disorder’s effect on the individual’s ability to function.

Specific treatments vary, depending on the severity of signs and symptoms and their effects on the patient’s ability to function adequately. Behavior modification, coaching, external structure, use of planning and organizing systems, and supportive psychotherapy can all help the patient more effectively cope with the disorder.

Some patients benefit from medication to relieve symptoms. Ideally, the treatment team identifies the symptoms to be managed, selects appropriate medication, and then tracks the patient’s symptoms carefully to determine the effectiveness of the medication. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine, are the most commonly used agents. However, other drugs, including tricyclic antidepressants (such as desipramine and nortriptyline), mood stabilizers, and beta blockers, sometimes help control symptoms. Tomoxetine, currently in clinical trials, has been found in preliminary studies to be effective; further research will involve extending the duration of treatment to determine the effects of the medication.

Special parenting skills are often required because children with AD/HD may not respond as well to typical parenting practices. Also, because ADHD tends to run in families, parents often have some problems with organization and consistency themselves and need active coaching to help learn these skills.

Prevention

Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in adolescents are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the adolescent’s normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.

References

  1. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml
  2. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/index.html
  3. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/symptoms/